About Killingly Energy Center/NTE Energy


How much energy will KEC produce?

The project will produce approximately 650 MW of baseload and peaking power, enough to power approximately 600,000 homes.  KEC will be one of the cleanest, most efficient natural gas generation facilities in North America.


Will the electricity generated by KEC be sold to Connecticut homes and businesses?

Like all New England power generation facilities, KEC’s electricity will be delivered to the regional grid for use across the six state region.  The regional grid operator, ISO New England, determines how and where electrons flow across the electric grid.  However, ISO New England has called for additional electricity generation in southern New England, including Connecticut, to ease supply constraints and meet local demand. 


 Why do we need more power plants?

Over 20% -- or more than 6,000 megawatts -- of regional electricity generation could be gone by 2025 due to planned and likely facility retirements.  That includes 1,772 megawatts of oil-fired generation in Connecticut alone.  So while electricity demand may remain flat, more generation is needed to fill the void left by the retiring regional coal and oil facilities and to enhance the integration of intermittent renewable wind and solar resources.  Connecticut’s Integrated Resource Plan calls for reliable, clean and cost-effective electric resources, including natural gas powered generation, to ensure Connecticut has sufficient capacity to meet demand, and Killingly Energy Center provides this clean, cost-effective capacity.


Will KEC help to lower electricity prices for Connecticut consumers?

Electricity prices are determined by a variety of factors, including fuel availability and costs, generator efficiency and availability, legislative and regulatory policies, and even the weather.  In addition to the costs of electric generation capacity, monthly electric bills also include charges for transmission and distribution services which is the largest portion of a monthly bill.  While KEC cannot guarantee a reduction in total consumer electricity costs for local ratepayers, our market-based economic modeling predicts cost savings of $215 million per year in generation savings for Connecticut ratepayers during the first five years of operation, due to KEC’s high efficiency and competitive capacity costs which will displace older, dirtier and more costly generation.

NTE has completed an economic and environmental benefits study, which can be found on our website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/resources.


Why does NTE show different values for the power output at KEC?

The combustion turbine, which sets the output and efficiency of a combined cycle power generating unit such as KEC, will produce more power on colder days when the air is more dense and will produce less power on the warmer days when the air is less dense.   The 650 MW figure presented most recently is an approximate nominal output value based on annual average temperatures. 


What is the status of NTE’s power plant projects in Ohio and North Carolina?  

NTE’s Middletown (Ohio) Energy Center (MEC) achieved commercial operation in May 2018.  NTE’s Kings Mountain Energy Center (KMEC) is currently in commissioning and will achieve commercial operation later this summer.  Both of these facilities are similar to the proposed KEC and utilize Mitsubishi combustion turbines. 




Why build KEC in Killingly?

Killingly is rich in infrastructure to support power generation, including access to existing natural gas and electric transmission lines. In addition, the KEC site conforms to the Town’s long term conservation and development plan and is located in an area identified for future industrial development.  What’s more, Connecticut and the region are in need of reliable baseload power to replace older and high-polluting oil and coal power plants, as well as aging nuclear facilities, and to help integrate intermittent renewable wind and solar facilities. 


Will there be opportunities for local residents to participate in the permitting and development process?

Yes, both the DEEP and CSC processes are designed to provide opportunities for public participation and input, including local public meetings and hearings throughout the processes.  What’s more, we take a personal approach to development projects, listen closely to community members and take their concerns seriously.  We invite anyone to contact us directly with questions or comments. 


Will the KEC property require local zoning changes?

No.  The KEC facility is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Connecticut Siting Council (CSC). As a part of its review of KEC’s application, the CSC will consider Killingly’s land use regulations, Plan of Conservation and Development and any municipal comments and recommendations.  


What is the ground elevation and size of the KEC site and how much of the parcel will need to be cleared to develop the power generating facility?

The finished elevation of the generating plant site (base of stack) will be 318 feet above mean sea level (AMSL). 

The KEC site consists of two parcels – the +/- 63acre generating plant site at 189 Lake Road and the +/- 10 acre Eversource switchyard site at 180 Lake Road. 

Project development will require that we clear approximately 24.5 acres.


Have NTE and the Town of Killingly entered into any agreements on taxes and community benefits?

Once KEC is developed and operational, NTE will be one of the largest tax payers in Killingly.  NTE and the Town of Killingly have entered into a mutually beneficial tax stabilization agreement, allowing for the delivery of consistent, sustained municipal tax revenue over the 20-year term of the agreement.  Over this 20-year period NTE’s tax payments to the Town will exceed $100 million, with additional tax revenues paid to the Williamsville Fire District.  Additionally, NTE and the Town have entered into a community environmental benefits agreement that will deliver $5 million of tangible benefits to the community as well as over $20 million in beneficial infrastructure improvements. 

Refer to our website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/benefits for copies of the Tax Stabilization Agreement and Community Environmental Benefit Agreement.


Why can’t NTE develop KEC on the site of a retired coal or oil plant?

We agree that re-developing a retired coal or oil facility with a new, clean and efficient gas fired facility such as KEC, would be ideal.  However, these old sites are frequently located in geographic areas that do not have access to an interstate natural gas pipeline.  For the few sites with sufficient natural gas supply, current owners typically retain these facilities for future redevelopment, making them unavailable to NTE.


How much noise will KEC create when operating?

KEC will be a quiet neighbor.  The facility’s layout is intentionally designed to minimize noise impacts.  Sound levels will be mitigated in a number of ways, including selection of low-noise equipment, adding enclosures or shielding, and using measures such as stack silencing.  Generating units will be located in the interior of the site, housed in acoustically treated enclosures inside the turbine building to reduce noise levels significantly.  State and local noise regulations require noise at the property boundaries to be no higher than 51 dBA (equivalent to a quiet office setting) and levels will drop off quickly as distance away from the property boundary increases. 

A detailed noise study has been completed and can be found on our website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/resources


Will KEC involve intrusive and noisy releases of steam?

Near the end of the construction period, “steam blows” are required to ensure that any residual scale and debris associated with piping fabrication has been completely removed.  Steam blows typically occur during the last 6 months of the construction effort.  KEC will use the newer practice of low pressure steam blows, rather than shorter bursts of high pressure steam through the pipes. No steam blowing will be scheduled during nighttime hours.  When steam blows occur, mitigation measures such as sound muzzlers and/or acoustic wraps will be used around the pipes and vents to reduce the sound. Given the location of the vents of pipes and the use of these measures, it is expected that noise levels from these steam blow events will be below the daytime requirement for an industrial emitter at a residential property line at the KEC property boundaries. 

Once KEC is operational, steam blows are not expected.  Unlike the Lake Road Generating Facility, KEC incorporates use of an auxiliary boiler to keep the facility warm during shutdown periods and provide steam during startups, thereby avoiding the need for steam blows during startups and shutdowns.   


Has low frequency noise been considered in the design of KEC?

All sound is made up of multiple frequencies with the sound of various pieces of equipment balanced such that different frequencies may be more audible. When modeling anticipated sound levels from KEC, contributions for all equipment are included to demonstrate compliance with state and local property line noise standards. To the extent mitigation has been applied, the specific mitigation selected has considered the frequency character and other attributes of the specific piece of equipment to not only result in property line compliance with the applicable noise limits, but to eliminate tonal noise. Note that, in addition to the stringent requirement to meet 61 dBA during the day and 51 dBA at night at the KEC property line, state regulations include limitations on infrasonic and ultrasonic noise as well as audible discrete tones; KEC’s design will meet all applicable state and local noise standards. 


What features will KEC incorporate to reduce light pollution?

Advances in lighting technology will allow KEC to have a very limited lighting impact.  Downward-facing directional lighting will be used to project light only where it is needed.  The facility will use motion-detecting lights and manual task lighting wherever possible and safe, to reduce ambient lighting.  Orange sodium lights will not be employed. Additionally, the FAA has deemed our facility as having ‘no hazard to air navigation’, which means no markings or lighting is required on the stack for aviation safety.


How tall will the stack be? Will the facility be visible? 

KEC will have a single stack standing 150 feet tall, compared to the existing three, 165-foot stacks at the Lake Road Generating Facility.  Existing topography and vegetation will also reduce visual impacts considerably. 

NTE has completed a visual impact study, which can be found on our website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/resources.


How will KEC impact property values?

Many factors determine a property’s value in a community, including the quality of the public schools, the safety of local neighborhoods, the stability of the community’s tax base and a healthy business and economic development climate.  KEC is being sited adjacent to the industrial park and in an area designated for industrial development.  Given the existing industrial businesses and infrastructure, the added jobs to the community, as well as payment of significant property taxes, KEC could have a positive impact on Killingly property values.  KEC will also support other important Town services and infrastructure improvements. These revenues could also be used to lower the tax rate for local residents.  For the immediate neighbors to KEC, NTE will be offering a Property Value Guarantee to those residents located within a 2500 foot radius from the center of the project.  This commitment has been included in the Community Environmental Benefit Agreement with the Town (refer to CEBA Section 6c for details which is available on the KEC website).

Refer to the KEC website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/benefits for a copy of the Community Environmental Benefit Agreement; and www.killinglyenergycenter.com/resources for KEC’s economic and environmental benefits study.


Will KEC construction require blasting?  Will local wells and property be monitored for damage?

Yes, surficial blasting will be required to construct the KEC facility. The project will obtain all required permits and work with an experienced blasting contractor who is familiar with the area’s geology and hydrology.  In addition, KEC will develop and offer local residents a plan to monitor neighboring wells and properties prior to the blasting and mitigate any damage resulting from it.  


How much additional traffic will KEC create and will there be upgrades to Lake Road?

KEC will add some additional traffic to Lake Road during construction, but the existing roadway network and infrastructure are capable of handling these increased volumes.  Once operational, KEC is expected to add a negligible amount of traffic.  Vehicles exiting the facility will be directed to the east, toward the industrial park, and the existing “No Thru Trucks” sign will be moved to the west of the KEC site.  To accommodate larger trucks accessing the site, improvements to Lake Road will be made along the curves just east of the site.

During rare occasions when the ultra-low sulfur distillate tank needs to be replenished, KEC will be serviced by approximately one truck every 30 minutes, which would have no significant effect on current traffic operations.

KEC has completed a Traffic Impact Report, available on our website at www.killinglyenergycenter.com/resources.


Will neighbors feel vibrations when the KEC facility is operating?

No.  The facility does not produce any vibrations that can be felt beyond the turbine pedestal.


Will ammonia be stored on the site?  What will it be used for?

Yes. KEC will inject 19% Aqueous Ammonia (81% water / 19% ammonia) upstream of the SCR catalyst in order to reduce NOx emissions. Aqueous Ammonia, and particularly at this low concentration, is substantially safer than Anhydrous Ammonia (which is a gas) due not only to its lower concentration, but also because it is easily contained. KEC will store approximately 12,000 gallons of Aqueous Ammonia on site in storage tanks with secondary containment and expect to replace the depleted ammonia utilizing standard tanker trucks approximately twice a week.  

Will hydrogen be stored on the site?  What will it be used for?

Yes.  Hydrogen will used to cool the electric generators.  Approximately 40,000 standard cubic feet will be stored in a highway rated tube trailer located in an area adjacent to the electric generators.  We would expect to replace the depleted tube trailer with a full trailer approximately once per month.  




Will the KEC facility be safe? 

Yes, KEC will be safe.  Safety is our highest priority.  KEC will incorporate the latest technologies, employ highly trained personnel and utilize the latest industry safety procedures in order to minimize the possibility of any accidents during construction, testing, start-up and operation.  Sophisticated fire suppression systems will be integrated into the project’s design. We will work closely with the fire chief and local fire district to ensure they have an intimate knowledge of the KEC facility and are equipped to quickly respond in the unlikely event of an incident. 


Will any water be stored on site for fire protection?

Yes.  The KEC facility will include a 500,000 gallon raw water tank on the south side of the generating plant site.  This tank will be configured to assure that KEC always has access to sufficient water for process water and fire protection needs.  The bottom section of the tank, approximately 200,000 gallons, will held exclusively for and accessible only by the fire protection system.


What will NTE do to protect KEC against cyber-attacks?

Cybersecurity is a top priority for the electricity generation industry as a whole and for NTE.  With that in mind, we will hire an experienced operations company, as we have for MEC and KMEC, with strong cyber security standards and a history of successful cyber security implementation.  KEC’s operations contractor will utilize the latest technology to protect the integrity and operation of all plant equipment and systems from cybersecurity threats.  NTE will adhere to all applicable North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) cyber security requirements.


How will emergency vehicles and residential traffic traverse Lake Road during construction associated with the natural gas lateral upgrade?

NTE will work closely with Yankee Gas, Town officials, the state police and fire district to minimize any traffic disruptions for Lake Road residents and ensure unimpeded access for all emergency vehicles during the upgrade of the lateral. The short distance of the lateral within Lake Road will also minimize the duration of potential disruption.


Who will be responsible for the demolition and decommissioning of the plant?

As a condition to approving KEC’s application, the CSC will require that KEC have a plan in place for the safe demolition and decommissioning of the plant.  In addition, the Community Environmental Benefit Agreement between the Town and NTE includes a provision under which NTE will maintain a bond during the life of the facility for future decommissioning of KEC. 


Will KEC be protected against seismic tremors or an earthquake?

Yes, KEC will incorporate design and construction features that will allow it to safely operate in the event of any localized seismic activity.  Importantly, the soils at the site are not considered to be susceptible to seismically induced liquefaction and the geographic area is not prone to significant seismic activity.




Shouldn’t we be relying more on renewable energy sources?

Yes.  Renewables will continue to play an increasingly important role in Connecticut’s and New England’s electric generation mix.  KEC is an important source in a robust renewable energy portfolio. As an efficient and fast-ramping baseload power generation facility, KEC will back up wind and solar generation and will keep the lights on when the wind doesn’t blow and the sun doesn’t shine.  By balancing out wind and solar intermittency, KEC will enable greater utilization and integration of renewables into the energy mix and will do so with a highly efficient electric generating facility.  


Will the proximity of other power plants in this region negatively impact air quality in Killingly?

We know there are concerns regarding the proximity of existing and potential power plants to Killingly. It’s easy to imagine that these plants are collectively contributing to a decline in Killingly’s air quality but, in fact, the exact opposite is true. Years of air quality data clearly demonstrate that the introduction of these new, more efficient natural gas plants into the generation mix, replacing older coal and oil fired units, has contributed to continuous improvements in air quality in Killingly and the broader region.  Within a 100-mile radius of Killingly, over 4500 MW (seven power plants) of coal and oil generation have retired or are at risk of retirement, thanks to cleaner, more efficient power generation sources in the region.  As each new gas-fired combined cycle plant begins operation, older oil and coal plants with higher emission levels will run less frequently or retire, creating incremental improvements in Killingly’s air quality.

What’s more, Killingly is not unique in the number and proximity of power plants in its immediate vicinity. When considering a similar radius around other communities throughout southern New England, many host similar counts of power generation units.


Will KEC protect local air quality standards?

KEC will be among the cleanest, most efficient natural gas power generation facilities in North America, utilizing state-of-the-art electric generation technology that will allow it to operate 25% more efficiently than the average electric generator in Connecticut.  This means KEC will displace the operation of older, higher-emitting oil fired plants that would otherwise be needed to meet regional energy demand, helping improve overall air quality in Connecticut and New England.

KEC’s air quality analysis was completed following Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The analysis is based on worst case scenario assumptions. Put another way, the analysis intentionally overstates the project’s potential impacts to ensure protection of air quality. Even with these worst-case assumptions, KEC’s modeled impacts are well within all applicable ambient air quality standards that have been established to protect even the most sensitive individuals. 

KEC will use a continuous air emissions monitoring system which measures and records emission levels to confirm and demonstrate our ongoing compliance with all federal and state emission standards and programs. This data is reported regularly to the DEEP and is available to the public. 

In addition, according to Richard Pirelli, the director of planning and standards at the CT Bureau of Air Management (within DEEP), over 90% of Connecticut’s air pollution comes from out-of-state, from upwind coal- and oil-burning power plants in the Midwest and South, as well as from mobile emissions (cars and trucks). By contrast, KEC will contribute to emissions decreases by displacing 1.5 million tons of CO2 (equivalent to planting over 35 million trees or taking over 50,000 cars off the road for five years), 3,500 tons of NOx and 1,900 tons of SO2 during the first five years of operation alone.


Will KEC’s emissions have an impact on people with breathing difficulties (i.e. asthma)?

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at levels determined to be protective of the health of the most sensitive individuals (chronic asthmatics and emphysemics) plus an added margin of safety.  In order to receive its air permit, KEC must demonstrate to DEEP and EPA that – even with its impacts added to the impacts from other existing sources in the area plus state-monitored background levels – those stringent EPA standards will not be exceeded nor will existing air quality levels that are currently better than the standards be degraded.

KEC will displace older, less efficient Connecticut oil-fired electricity generators resulting in an improvement in regional air quality. The introduction of similar natural-gas fueled generating facilities since deregulation of the electric utility industry in the 1990s has resulted in a dramatic improvement in air quality over time.  (see the air quality trend reports published by DEEP and EPA at http://www.ct.gov /deep/cwp/view.asp?A=2684&Q=321806 ).  A number of charts showing improving air quality trends, including particulates which are most frequently associated with asthma, are available in that report.  Connecticut’s data shows that fine particulate (PM2.5) levels have dramatically improved since the early 2000s, when a number of new natural-gas fueled units came into operation and older displaced coal- and oil-fired units.

You will see from review of the DEEP and EPA reports that the introduction of new natural gas-fired power plants in the region has resulted in improved air quality in Connecticut and throughout New England, due to the displacement of older, higher emitting units. 


Who selects the locations for the state-monitored background air monitoring stations?

DEEP is required to establish the state-monitored air quality background data collection in locations capable of capturing the highest concentrations expected to occur in the state.  Upon establishment by DEEP, these locations are reviewed and approved by EPA.  The state then uses these locations to demonstrate that the state meets the NAAQS for all locations.  For fine particulates, Connecticut achieved that goal in all locations from 2008 on, with consistent trends for all parameters in all locations monitored.  Connecticut, of course, is not the only state that maintains this type of monitoring network. You can see from the tracking provided on the American Lung Association website (http:// www.lung. norg/our-initiatives/healthy-air/sota/city-rankings/states/rhode-island/providence.html) that Rhode Island and Massachusetts, which bracket the Killingly area, have also seen dramatic improvement in fine particulate levels as well as in other parameters.  


What is the “significant impact area” and what does it mean?

The “significant impact area” discussed in regard to air modelling is a technical designation used by DEEP and the EPA to determine the scope of a required air permit modeling analysis. It does not represent an area that will be subject to any air quality standard exceedances.  All of KEC’s air modeling results demonstrate that KEC will meet all ambient air quality standards at all times and in every location in Killingly and beyond.


What is the exhaust temperature at the top of the stack?

The exhaust temperature at the top of the stack will range from 175 to 212°F depending on ambient temperature, operating load, and type of fuel in use.




How much water will KEC use?  Where will it come from?  What impact will it have on Alexander’s Lake and the surrounding watershed?

Because KEC will utilize air-cooled technology, water needs are reduced by 95% when compared to a similarly sized water-cooled facility.  KEC’s average water use will be up to 50,000-100,000 gallons per day.  In the rare event that natural gas is not available and KEC must operate on ultra-low sulfur distillate in order to maintain grid reliability, water requirements would be up to 400,000 gallons per day.  We expect this would occur only for several hours on the order of once every 2-3 years based on historical precedents.  (Note: KEC will not utilize evaporative cooling when firing ULSD.)  By comparison, it takes about 312,000 gallons to water a golf course each day, 360,000 gallons to cool a data center for a day and 540,000 gallons per day to make six inches of snow at a ski resort. 

NTE and Connecticut Water Company (CWC) have entered into an agreement under which the limited water needs of KEC will be provided by CWC using their existing resources without any additional use of the Killingly Industrial Park well.  CWC’s system has the capacity to sustainably provide 400,000 gallons per day to KEC.  KEC will fund a connection between CWC’s Plainfield and Crystal water systems, creating enhanced supply and reliability of the water system for the benefit of KEC, and the Killingly and Plainfield communities. 

KEC will not impact the water quality or quantity of Alexander’s Lake.  As stated above, CWC will meet the KEC demand from existing infrastructure and wells that are hydrogeologically separated from Alexander’s Lake and without any additional use of the industrial park well. 


How will stormwater be controlled on the site and discharged to the environment?

NTE has closely examined existing and proposed surface and subsurface conditions at the site in order to identify and mitigate any potential impacts to the quality of stormwater discharges.  The project’s stormwater design integrates all required mitigation measures, consistent with the Town of Killingly Inland Wetlands & Watercourses Regulations and the most current Connecticut Stormwater Quality Manual. These measures as well as significant erosion and sediment control measures to be implemented during site preparation and construction, have been designed to protect existing earth resources, minimize the area of disturbed land, maximize infiltration, preserve water quality, and control drainage and runoff flowing onto, within and from the site.

Following construction of KEC, the final grading plan will be implemented and the installation of the permanent stormwater management system will be completed. The final stormwater management system will minimize the release and suspension of pollutants, effectively and safely remove water from the roadway and other critical areas, and properly treat stormwater before final discharge from the site. Further, consistent with Town of Killingly Inland Wetlands & Watercourses Regulations, KEC will not allow untreated surface drainage into any watercourse or inland wetland.




How will gas from the Algonquin pipeline reach the plant?

There is an existing Yankee Gas lateral from the Algonquin pipeline currently running just west of the project site. Yankee Gas will replace and upgrade the existing, decades-old lateral in order to provide enhanced reliability for all end users and supply natural gas to KEC.  No new right-of-way will be developed.  The Yankee lateral will run a short distance within Lake Road from the point it intersects the road to the plant site.  It is not anticipated that this upgrade will impact existing landowners or abutters.  The Algonquin pipeline, which will deliver gas to the Yankee lateral, is also undergoing its own modernization, ensuring that it has robust capacity and reliability to safely serve homes and businesses throughout Killingly, Connecticut and the region.


Will KEC utilize fracked natural gas?

KEC’s natural gas supply will come from the same interstate pipeline that currently provides natural gas to local homes and businesses.  Some of this natural gas comes from shale fields that require hydraulic fracturing, while other sources typically include Canadian and Gulf Coast gas supplies or LNG imported through Boston Harbor.  We believe that fracking should be conducted with the highest environmental integrity and oversight to eliminate methane emissions, protect local water supplies and reduce environmental impacts. 


How much ultra-low sulfur distillate (ULSD) will KEC store on site?

Although KEC will have the capacity to store up to 1 million gallons of ULSD, in practice, KEC will store only a fraction of that during normal operations. ULSD is only used in the unlikely event that natural gas is temporarily unavailable and ISO NE requires KEC to operate to maintain system reliability.  Based on historical precedents, we expect this would occur only for short periods of several hours on the order of once every 2-3 years.  ULSD can be safely stored for years at a time if it is regularly agitated and mixed. 

The 1-million-gallon storage capacity provides the region with an operational cushion – basically an insurance policy – to keep KEC running and providing power to the grid in times of gas supply interruptions. 




Will you hire local people to build KEC and work at the plant?

Yes.  NTE is committed to hiring local people, service providers and subcontractors during construction and operation of the facility.